Tag Archives: history

Bolinas and Dogtown

 

BOLINAS

 

Seaside Bolinas is the oldest town in Coastal Marin. It is famously an eccentric and tolerant town with a community that includes descendants of early Bolinas families, artists and writers, biologists, high tech innovators, social and environmental activists, renowned organic food producers and more.

The turn-off to Bolinas from Highway One is at the head of the Bolinas Lagoon, keeping the lagoon on your left. Parking in town is problematic and the dead end main street makes turning around difficult. Alternatively arriving by the West Marin Stage public transportation can free you and townspeople from parking frustration. Or add to your adventure by turning right on Mesa Road, parking in the roomy gravel lot by the fire station, then stroll across the road to a pleasant downhill path through a eucalyptus grove. The town is dog friendly but please bring only well-socialized dogs to Bolinas. No camping or fires are allowed on the beach. Residents ask visitors to be thoughtful and respect their community, beaches and environment.

The town’s history stretches back to Native Americans followed by Spanish Californios, both settled on the sunny flatland by today’s schoolhouse. The Gold Rush brought logging, ranching and an economy dependent on maritime transportation until the 1930s. From 1914-1990s Marconi / RCA made global communication history here. Besides a literary Renaissance, the 1970s were pivotal for community commitment to preserve small town Bolinas and its wildlife-rich environment. Most of downtown was built between 1850 and 1920. The Schooner Saloon (Smiley’s) dates back to the early days of logging, and Bolinas Market has changed little since reopening after the 1906 earthquake. Next to the historic blacksmith shop/garage is Bo-Gas, one of only two gas stations in Coastal Marin. It is open 24/7 by credit card and sales contribute to Bolinas Land Trust, a non-profit providing affordable housing. Public restrooms are located in the downtown park and another by the tennis court.

In addition to savoring nature, hiking or the small beach, Bolinas offers an honor-system bookstore and farm stand, a hardware store with unusual gifts, second-hand stores, world-source gifts, a library, a few B&Bs and a few motel rooms 
at the saloon. For eating, emphasis here is on delicious locally harvested food. There are sandwiches at natural foods Bolinas People’s Store and Bolinas Market, sit down at Coast Café, and interesting new food venues are opening. Don’t miss the wildlife artist’s gallery, changing shows at the rentable Bolinas Gallery and the outstanding Bolinas Museum of fine art and local history.

The community center has a
 busy schedule of classes and events, Commonweal’s New School offers stimulating public talks and the Maritime Radio Historical Society offers RCA radio station tours by appointment. There are surfboard rentals, surfing lessons and supplies. In the historic barn, next to Bolinas Museum, The Surf Shop sells comfortable clothes now, but the owner, Buzz, was the founder of the very first surf shop (including building surfboards) between the Golden Gate Bridge and Canada.

There is no highway sign and the town has a reputation for discouraging visitors, but if you find your way here, you will find the community is friendly, interesting and full of independent-minded creative people.

Courtesy of Elia Haworth, Curator of Coastal Marin Art & History, Bolinas Museum

 

Dogtown – the first Bolinas

Just north of the Bolinas turn off is the little settlement of Dogtown. This was the original Bolinas and entry to Rancho Las Baulines (established about 1834) whose boundaries defined the township until 1916. The lagoon side town’s location today was just called “The Point”, the place where schooners were loaded with lumber, dairy, farm products and people to transport to San Francisco.

The Gold Rush brought thousands
of immigrants into the tiny San Francisco and created an insatiable need for lumber to build a city. In 1850 hundreds
of men descended on Rancho Baulines to fell the primeval redwood forests and turn the ancient oaks and pines into firewood. Sawmills were built and the rowdy community of Baulines sprang up. Yankees simplified the spelling to Bolinas. In 1865, newspaper editor Ai Barney visited Bolinas and described it as “quite a settlement, and is known under the cogomen of “Dogtown”– being so called, we presume, from the immense number of canines which infest the place”. Dogs were for hunting bear and deer. He described it’s wagon-its businesses and five or six houses. A few of those buildings remain today including the first Bolinas schoolhouse. Three copper mines opened nearby and Bolinas was briefly renamed Copper Town, but mining failed. Eventually busy commerce at The Point drew the township of Bolinas.

The name Dogtown-Bolinas stuck for the settlement, much to the frustration of resident men who believed the name Dogtown hindered attracting marriageable women. On December 31, 1868, a town meeting was held, “to deliberate on the expediency of the proposition to make sausage of all the dogs and chose a more virtuous, modest and sweet-scented word of a warbling sound as a name more suitable for our thrifty town of decent inhabitants.” Dogtown-Bolinas became “Woodville.”

Woodville faded into a neighborhood of fewer residents and locals continued to call it Dogtown for over 100 years. Finally a local resident petitioned the Board of Supervisors of Marin County to restore the name. By unanimous resolution in April, 1976–it officially became Dogtown.

Courtesy of the Bolinas Museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOLINAS

 

Seaside Bolinas is the oldest town in Coastal Marin. It is famously an eccentric and tolerant town with a community that includes descendants of early Bolinas families, artists and writers, biologists, high tech innovators, social and environmental activists, renowned organic food producers and more.

The turn-off to Bolinas from Highway One is at the head of the Bolinas Lagoon, keeping the lagoon on your left. Parking in town is problematic and the dead end main street makes turning around difficult. Alternatively arriving by the West Marin Stage public transportation can free you and townspeople from parking frustration. Or add to your adventure by turning right on Mesa Road, parking in the roomy gravel lot by the fire station, then stroll across the road to a pleasant downhill path through a eucalyptus grove. The town is dog friendly but please bring only well-socialized dogs to Bolinas. No camping or fires are allowed on the beach. Residents ask visitors to be thoughtful and respect their community, beaches and environment.

The town’s history stretches back to Native Americans followed by Spanish Californios, both settled on the sunny flatland by today’s schoolhouse. The Gold Rush brought logging, ranching and an economy dependent on maritime transportation until the 1930s. From 1914-1990s Marconi / RCA made global communication history here. Besides a literary Renaissance, the 1970s were pivotal for community commitment to preserve small town Bolinas and its wildlife-rich environment. Most of downtown was built between 1850 and 1920. The Schooner Saloon (Smiley’s) dates back to the early days of logging, and Bolinas Market has changed little since reopening after the 1906 earthquake. Next to the historic blacksmith shop/garage is Bo-Gas, one of only two gas stations in Coastal Marin. It is open 24/7 by credit card and sales contribute to Bolinas Land Trust, a non-profit providing affordable housing. Public restrooms are located in the downtown park and another by the tennis court.

In addition to savoring nature, hiking or the small beach, Bolinas offers an honor-system bookstore and farm stand, a hardware store with unusual gifts, second-hand stores, world-source gifts, a library, a few B&Bs and a few motel rooms 
at the saloon. For eating, emphasis here is on delicious locally harvested food. There are sandwiches at natural foods Bolinas People’s Store and Bolinas Market, sit down at Coast Café, and interesting new food venues are opening. Don’t miss the wildlife artist’s gallery, changing shows at the rentable Bolinas Gallery and the outstanding Bolinas Museum of fine art and local history.

The community center has a
 busy schedule of classes and events, Commonweal’s New School offers stimulating public talks and the Maritime Radio Historical Society offers RCA radio station tours by appointment. There are surfboard rentals, surfing lessons and supplies. In the historic barn, next to Bolinas Museum, The Surf Shop sells comfortable clothes now, but the owner, Buzz, was the founder of the very first surf shop (including building surfboards) between the Golden Gate Bridge and Canada.

There is no highway sign and the town has a reputation for discouraging visitors, but if you find your way here, you will find the community is friendly, interesting and full of independent-minded creative people.

Courtesy of Elia Haworth, Curator of Coastal Marin Art & History, Bolinas Museum

 

Dogtown – the first Bolinas

Just north of the Bolinas turn off is the little settlement of Dogtown. This was the original Bolinas and entry to Rancho Las Baulines (established about 1834) whose boundaries defined the township until 1916. The lagoon side town’s location today was just called “The Point”, the place where schooners were loaded with lumber, dairy, farm products and people to transport to San Francisco.

The Gold Rush brought thousands
of immigrants into the tiny San Francisco and created an insatiable need for lumber to build a city. In 1850 hundreds
of men descended on Rancho Baulines to fell the primeval redwood forests and turn the ancient oaks and pines into firewood. Sawmills were built and the rowdy community of Baulines sprang up. Yankees simplified the spelling to Bolinas. In 1865, newspaper editor Ai Barney visited Bolinas and described it as “quite a settlement, and is known under the cogomen of “Dogtown”– being so called, we presume, from the immense number of canines which infest the place”. Dogs were for hunting bear and deer. He described it’s wagon-its businesses and five or six houses. A few of those buildings remain today including the first Bolinas schoolhouse. Three copper mines opened nearby and Bolinas was briefly renamed Copper Town, but mining failed. Eventually busy commerce at The Point drew the township of Bolinas.

The name Dogtown-Bolinas stuck for the settlement, much to the frustration of resident men who believed the name Dogtown hindered attracting marriageable women. On December 31, 1868, a town meeting was held, “to deliberate on the expediency of the proposition to make sausage of all the dogs and chose a more virtuous, modest and sweet-scented word of a warbling sound as a name more suitable for our thrifty town of decent inhabitants.” Dogtown-Bolinas became “Woodville.”

Woodville faded into a neighborhood of fewer residents and locals continued to call it Dogtown for over 100 years. Finally a local resident petitioned the Board of Supervisors of Marin County to restore the name. By unanimous resolution in April, 1976–it officially became Dogtown.

Courtesy of the Bolinas Museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolinas Lagoon

Bolinas Lagoon is the core of local human history, it is home to billions of organisms from microscopic to harbor seals, and an essential resource to countless generations of migrating birds. But before the arrival of Russians hunters, and Europeans and Yankee settlers, almost unimaginable numbers of animals, insects, birds and fish inhabited this primeval landscape. Native Americans lived at Bolinas for perhaps 2000 years, as equal members of a complex web of life centered around the lagoon.

Bolinas Lagoon is created by San Andreas Fault, the seam between continental North America and the geologic island of Point Reyes Peninsula. It is a remarkable confluence of unobstructed watershed, fertile land and the upwelling-enriched Pacific Ocean. Occasional earthquakes and the scouring of a robust tidal prism kept this lagoon/estuary vibrant for some 7000 years. Yet, in less than 180 years, since the introduction of agriculture and livestock about 1834, followed by logging, humans have radically impacted the lagoon’s health.

By 1852 human-caused erosion allowed winter rains to wash heavy loads of sediment into the lagoon, and began affecting boat traffic and the lagoon’s natural system. Since the 1870s, landfill for building and repairing a tide-resistant road around the lagoon, housing development, non-native plants, garbage dumps, pollution, and loss of habitat have further exacerbated the problems.

Marin County’s vigorous environmental preservation movement began in the 1930s. When a yacht harbor with hotels and casinos was proposed for the Lagoon in the 1960s, public activism saved it. Since then, concerned citizens and scientists have been intensely searching for how we can help the health of this important and complex ecosystem.

 

In the 1980s, citizen groups like Bolinas Lagoon Technical Advisory committee, the Bolinas Lagoon Foundation and its ad hoc Committee to Save Bolinas Lagoon, caught the attention of national and international entities that began to recognize its importance. In 1997 the lagoon was designated a State and National Treasure, and in 1998 it was recognized by the Ramsar Convention as a wetland of international importance.

 

These designations brought long awaited federal support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers who studied the lagoon, and in 2002 released a draft study proposing removal of 1.4 million ft³ of sediment. Alarmed by the impacts dredging would cause to established habitat, and opposition to what many saw as a short-term fix, public outcry spawned a Marin County review of the study and a new process for developing science-based community supported initiatives to restore and manage the lagoon.

 

In 2008 the Locally Preferred Plan was released and today guides Marin County and its partners toward multi-beneficial efforts that encourage natural recovery from human-caused impacts, and facilitates adaptation to future changes. Climate change threatens impact from increased storms, flooding and erosion, so projects that instill resilience are crucial.

 

Today several initiatives from the Locally Preferred Plan are actively addressing invasive species removal, sediment and water movement, flooding, and water quality among other issues. Projects like the Kent Island Restoration Project, and the European Green Crab Removal Project implemented by local volunteers and school groups, embody the importance of human action, not just to remedy impacts but to prevent them. Other projects like the upcoming North End Restoration Project involving road redesign and enhanced wetland habitat will provide ecological benefits, sea level rise adaptation measures, and improve transportation and public safety.

 

Although the lagoon will never return to the ecological oasis it once was, residents are establishing stewardship of the environment they call home. Humans are partnering with nature and are committed to removing obstacles from the natural system that will contribute to aid the Bolinas Lagoon’s healthy future.

 

Article co-authored by

Kate Bimrose

Resource Protection Specialist, Bolinas Lagoon

Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary

 

and

 

Elia Haworth

Curator of Coastal Marin Art & History

Bolinas Museum

 

Two Silos in Tomales

Diekmann's

Diekmann’s General Store, Tomales.

 

The building that now houses Diekmann’s General Store, built in 1867, was, in its earliest years, Newburgh & Kahn’s, whose stock included groceries, dry goods, hardware, clothes, hay and grain, coal, gun powder, lumber, wallpaper, and furnishings. After three more owners Walter Diekmann purchased the business in 1948.

One of the four Diekmann brothers to make a mark on the North Bay grocery business (older brother William owned the 405 Market in Santa Rosa, Herman operated Diekmann’s Bay Store in Bodega Bay, and Ed Diekmann would later be proprietor of Valley of the Moon Market in Glen Ellen), Walt Diekmann was a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of Iowa. He and Mildred Bartels had been married less than two years, and had a new baby boy named Billy, when a phone call came from the older brother, William, bringing a message echoing countless others that had been crossing the country for a hundred years: “there’s money to be made in California!”

After an investigatory trip to look over a Tomales general store that was for sale, Diekmann returned to Iowa, where he and Mildred auctioned most of their household goods , packed the rest in a tiny, one-wheeled trailer, and set off with 1 ½ year-old Bill for California. The Diekmann family eventually included three children, Bill, Mark and Kristin, and even after Mildred’s sad and unexpected death-Kristin was only two years old-Walt managed, with help from relatives and neighbors, to raise the kids and work 6 and a half days a week. As the children grew they took part in the business, absorbing the finer points of small town storekeeping along the way.

Everyone, it seems, has memories of Diekmann’s General Store: the ice water-filled, lidded barrel with bottles of soft drinks inside, the post office at the rear of the store, and the well-filled comic book rack at the front corner, where the patient proprietor put up with the frequent reading-and not so frequent buying-of local kids.

After Walt Diekmann died in 1972, Bill and Kristin took over the business (which they sold, while maintaining ownership of the building, in 2000). In the late ‘70’s Bill oversaw the rehabilitation of the venerable building, which included restoration of some original cabinetry and other interior details. The store, a focal point of the village’s commercial district, has deservedly become a beloved icon of Tomales. Kristin now runs the Two Silos Mercantile on the second floor which offers antiques, consignment and selected seconds merchandise.

Excerpted with permission, from the Tomales Regional History Center Bulletin, October 2006. Editor Ginny Magan

 

New Exhibit of West Marin history at the Jack Mason Museum

Come to an open house on August 9, from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm at the Jack Mason Museum, located at Inverness Way and Park Avenue, Inverness.

Radio Personalities of West Marin, is one of several exhibits, activities and talks around Marin County marking the one hundredth anniversary of the transmission of the first message from Guglielmo Marconi new stations in Marshall and Bolinas. With that message, the small agricultural communities of West Marin became part of a new communications network that would soon cover the globe.

 

The exhibit looks at the individuals who were part of the wireless industry in West Marin. It begins with Marconi himself, moves on to a boy who dropped out of high school after the Titanic disaster to be a shipboard wireless operator, presents the man who first heard of the Pearl Harbor attack, and ends with many local people who made the stations so successful.

 

 

 

For addition information, please contact Tom Branan at branco@ix.netcom.com

Point Reyes National Seashore and the tule elk: an historical background

As Point Reyes National Seashore begins a new process focused on comprehensive ranch planning, it is important for people to understand the basic background of why there are ranches within the Seashore, as well as how and where the elk were reintroduced. This article is based on the presentation I gave at the West Marin Chamber of Commerce’s elk forum last week, and the research comes from a book I am currently finishing about working landscapes at Point Reyes.

 

The Role of Agriculture at PRNS

Point Reyes was first studied by the National Park Service (NPS) as a potential park location in the 1930s; in 1959 it was formally proposed as a National Seashore, and was established in 1962. At that time, the peninsula supported fifteen active dairies and ten beef ranches, all privately owned and operated, and mostly by families with multi-generational connections to the landscape.

 

PRNS was originally intended to provide beach and recreation access close to an urban population, part of the NPS’s “Parks for the People” campaign of the early 1960s. Yet it was established with a 26,000-acre pastoral zone, stretching from A Ranch up to Pierce and back down to Home Ranch, intended to remain in private ownership; parcels larger than 500 acres could not be acquired by the NPS except with consent of the owners, as long as the land stayed in a natural state or agricultural use. At one of the hearings, Senator Bible stated that the legislation fostered “long-established ranching and dairying activities which. . . will not interfere with the public enjoyment” of Point Reyes; Senator Kuchel added that the pastoral zone would be “an equitable solution for preserving the local economy.”

 

For a variety of reasons, the pastoral zone ended up being acquired by the NPS after additional legislation passed in 1970; at the time, a compromise was reached where the ranchers agreed to support this change, as long as they could continue to operate within the Seashore. Most of the ranches were acquired by the NPS in 1972-73, most with 20-year Reservations of Use and Occupancy (RUOs) in exchange for discounted purchase prices. In 1978, Congress added language allowing agriculture to continue indefinitely; RUOs on agricultural properties could be converted to leases or special use permits, giving the historic ranching families “first right of refusal” for those leases. Most ranching reservations made this transition in the early 1990s.

 

During discussion of the 1970 legislation, Congress clearly directed continuing ranching as a permanent part of the Seashore, which it reaffirmed with its 1978 legislation. This was echoed in the 1980 General Management Plan for the park; “Although the establishment of the seashore and influences within the dairy industry have resulted in a reduction of agricultural activity at Point Reyes, Congress clearly intended that the ranches continue to operate.” However, the number of working ranches within the boundaries has dwindled significantly since the Seashore was established. Today there are only six dairies still in operation on the peninsula, and five beef cattle ranches.

 

Establishment of the Tomales Point Tule Elk Herd

 

Tule elk (Cervus canadensis nannodes) are a subspecies endemic to California, particularly the Central Valley, which had been reduced by market hunting nearly to extinction in the late 1800s, when a lone population of roughly ten individuals was discovered on a private cattle ranch near Bakersfield in the 1890s. This small population remnant was protected by the ranch owner, and increased to roughly 400 elk by 1914; later, some of the elk were relocated to other areas around the state.

 

By 1971, concern for this subspecies prompted the California Legislature to enact Senate Bill 722, sponsored by Peter Behr, to encourage expansion of the statewide population of tule elk to 2000, building from a population at that time of about 600 animals. According to PRNS’s Administrative History, “when discussions regarding the possibility of elk reintroduction to Point Reyes began, the biggest concern among both locals and park staff was the potential for disrupting peninsula dairy and grazing operations. State Fish and Game officials wanted the reintroduced elk to remain inside an enclosure, because of problems that free-ranging elk had created in the agricultural sector of the Central Valley.”

 

In 1976, Congress designated over 25,000 acres of PRNS as wilderness, and included Tomales Point, which was considered a prime location for establishing a transplanted tule elk herd. Long-time rancher Mervyn McDonald was forced to give up his lease at Pierce Point Ranch to make way for the new arrivals.

 

In 1978, the first herd of ten elk arrived at PRNS, and were eventually released onto Tomales Point behind a 10-foot-high elk fence to prevent elk and cattle from intermixing—both to prevent possible disease transmission, and to avoid management conflicts. Several elk died in their second year, but gradually the herd stabilized and started to grow. A population study conducted by graduate student Pete Gogan at UC Berkeley estimated the carrying capacity for Tomales Point was 140 individuals, and that “once the elk reached that level, the population would naturally stabilize.”

 

Yet after the drought of the late 1970s ended, the population began to soar at an exponential rate: by 1988, 93 individuals were recorded by the NPS; by 1994, the elk census showed 254 individuals, and in 1996, the population stood at 380.

 

In May 1997, PRNS staff gave a presentation at a Citizens Advisory Commission meeting, regarding the over-large size of the elk herd on Tomales Point; the Point Reyes Light reported, “About 100 calves were born last year,’ researcher Judd Howell told commissioners at a meeting in the Dance Palace. ‘That was a wake-up call. Suddenly we had a 33 percent increase in population.’” Superintendent Neubacher was quoted as saying, “I see no easy solutions to the management of the elk. . . But it’s important to create a long-term plan.”

 

The 1998 Elk Management Plan and Relocation of Elk to Limantour

 

This resulted in the 1998 Tule Elk Management Plan and Environmental Assessment. At this time, the Tomales Point herd size was approximately 550 individuals, and the statewide population of tule elk was 3,200 and growing. One of five objectives listed in the plan was to establish a free-ranging elk herd at Point Reyes by 2005.

 

Implementation did not take that long; in December 1998, a number of elk were relocated via helicopter from Tomales Point to a 25-acre fenced range just north of Coast Camp, to be quarantined and monitored for several months to ensure they were not carrying Johne’s disease. According to the Light, some residents expressed concern that the relocated elk would spread to private property on the east side of Inverness Ridge, and “several ranchers in the National Seashore said that they’d like park staff to fence in areas so that cattle would not mix with the elk.” In June 1999, Seashore staff released twenty-seven elk from their quarantine holding pen into the wilderness area near Limantour Estero. Each released adult animal wore a uniquely identifiable radio transmitter collar designed to allow tracking of locations and early detection of mortality.

 

The 1998 Elk Management Plan clearly states, “The Park Service has a responsibility to be a good neighbor to adjacent and nearby landowners. Anticipating the effects of tule elk management strategies on the property or perceptions of neighbors is an important consideration. Any depredations by elk on fences, crops, or other property would require mitigation actions to correct or avoid problems.” The Plan specifies that it “makes no effort” to hasten the closure of ranches within the Seashore, and while it considered an alternative (B) that would have allowed elk to free-range throughout the Seashore, that alternative was explicitly rejected.

 

Under the preferred Alternative A, the Limantour area was chosen for relocation due to its “large acreage in natural zoned with buffers from major highways, ranches, and lands outside the Seashore,” and clearly articulated that, “Tule elk will be allowed to roam outside the area as long as new home ranges are not established where conflicts with traffic corridors or neighbors are likely.” It goes on to specify, “Damage to property could occur if elk move outside the Seashore onto private lands and consume crops or damage fences or other property. The Seashore will be ready to recapture or destroy problem animals should these situations arise, or establish partnerships with state and county agencies with the necessary skills and personnel to assist with the recapture. The Seashore should be prepared to provide funding for compensating property damage if necessary. It may be possible for the Seashore to modify parts of the habitat to help prevent such occurrences, or construct barriers to dispersal.”

 

The elk range identified in the 1998 Plan is restricted to the wilderness area around and south of Limantour, not extending into the Pastoral Zone. Any possible impacts of relocating elk that have wandered out of the elk range back to the wilderness area have already been analyzed (in the context of “neighboring” private property), and the resulting document was a Finding of No Significant Impact. Hence there should be no need for additional NEPA review for returning the elk to their originally intended range in the wilderness area near Limantour, as such actions have already been determined to cause no significant impacts.

 

 

A New Herd Established Near Drakes Beach

 

Yet by summer 2000, at least two elk had turned up across Drakes Estero on the former Horick (D) Ranch, which had just been decommissioned/lease terminated the previous year. They eventually grew into an established herd, which currently is affecting ranches in that area of the Seashore, as the elk cross into leased pastures, not only eating the cattle’s forage (which needed to be replaced with expensive hay), but also damaging fences and irrigation systems. Holes in the fencing left by the elk allow dairy cows to stray from their proper pastures, and potentially to be bred at the wrong time or by the wrong bull. Similarly, tule elk from the Limantour herd are regularly seen on ranches north of that area, causing similar problems.

 

The PRNS Annual Report for 2001 stated, “Since their release, the new herd [at Limantour] has been carefully monitored to ensure animals remain within Seashore boundaries, do not interfere with cattle ranches within the park and are not shedding the organism that causes Johne’s disease.” Yet the tule elk have been interfering with ranches for years now, with little response. Furthermore, like the original population at Tomales Point, the free-ranging herds at both Limantour and the Horick Ranch have continued to increase; by early 2014, the herd sizes were 71 and 76, respectively, and a 2010 study of their population dynamics estimates that, without intervention, both herds will likely increase to approximately 400 individuals by 2018.

 

The Point Reyes Seashore Ranchers Association has requested that PRNS take action as soon as possible to relocate the tule elk away from the pastoral zone, or several ranches could be in danger of going out of business entirely from the impacts.

Published May 8, 2014

 

Dr. Laura A. Watt is an Associate Professor and Chair of Environmental Studies and Planning at Sonoma State University, and is currently completing a book project on the history of management at PRNS, titled “The Paradox of Preservation: Wilderness and Working Landscapes at Point Reyes National Seashore,” to be published by the UC Press.